This is how Clair Conzelman modified the TUS rules for his own World at War (TOS) in-house play. With a realization that several attempts have been made in the past by others to address many of these issues, he put "designer notes" in bracketed italics to help us understand his thoughts:

1. Infantry movement: Infantry movement factor is not changed, however an infantry unit may not physically move more than two hexes on the board, even if it has movement points remaining. Infantry cannot move any hexes at all in any formation’s SECOND chit draw (even when dismounting…it remains in the carrier’s hex). This restriction does not apply to occupying a hex after an assault, in any activation phase. Infantry always fire and perform other activity per the published rules. [This corrects the WaW problem of “flying infantry” relative to mounted activity.]

2. Overwatch fire: One unit that is eligible to act (e.g., fire opportunity fire) may fire against an enemy unit that has just fired. This fire must be declared and conducted just after the enemy fire is resolved. It is not simultaneous with the enemy fire. This enemy fire may be opportunity fire or direct fire, only (but it does include units doing hull-down fire as opportunity or direct fire). Only one overwatch fire may be conducted; the overwatch fire itself is not a trigger for more overwatch fire by the other player. [This represents a key tactic for both NATO and WP forces, especially supporting a maneuver element against opportunity fire.]

3. Missile Rate of Fire: Every time a missile unit fires mark it “Ammo Depl 1.” If there are no hits, mark it “Ammo Depl 2” instead, per normal WaW rules. This includes helicopters. [This represents its much slower rate of fire compared to gun units and partially corrects the WaW mis-representation of the amount of firepower of guns (due to rate of fire) compared to the much slower rate of fire of any missile units.]

4. Hexes: Each hex represents 250 meters, not 150 meters. [The ranges (at least classified ones) are actually more accurate using this scale, I think, and more terrain can be represented in standard table sized boards. For modern ranges and speeds, I think this scale better represents what can be done over terrain.]

5. Stacking: THREE units can stack in a hex (not two), and may move together. [This encourages the use of typical company formations, and the size of the hex doesn’t really affect realistic deployments.]

6. AFVs in woods: Any AFV suffers a -1 Assault Factor in a woods hex. [Woods are more effective for infantry firing, and the limited visibility and FoF are actually worse in woods than in cities/towns. This gives a bit more advantage to infantry in woods.]

7. Steams: Any unit may enter a stream hex by using all its movement in a phase to do so. It must be adjacent to the stream before movement, and ends movement in the stream hex. It costs nothing to leave a stream hex. This does not apply to major river hexes, which are still impassable except to amphibious vehicles or bridge units. [This gives a difference to streams and river hexes in WaW, which does not differentiate…there are too many uncrossable rivers in current WaW boards.]

8. NATO Hull Down Positions: AFVs may use a rule similar to the “pop up” rule for helicopters. An AFV behind a hill hex, that is eligible for opportunity fire, may declare fire as if it were in the hill hex that could target a moving enemy unit. It moves this one hex at the cost of one firepower factor and fires (it “withholds” an FP dice). It is then “ops complete.” If the unit withholds one more firepower factor (so that it would fire at -2 FP), after the fire is resolved, along with any enemy overwatch fire, the unit is returned to its original hex and is “ops complete” (loses eligibility for further opportunity fire this phase). Missile units CANNOT use this tactic. [This encourages the tradition use of AFV “hull-down” fighting positions and its advantages known to tactical decision makers/game players.]

9. NATO fire and movement: When the NATO player executes hull-down opportunity firing (per rule above) the NATO player can withhold firepower die; for every die it withholds it adds one defensive bonus die for any enemy overwatch fire directed against it. [This is a further representation of a key tank defensive tactic that reduces firepower in exchange for greater protection, a tactical dilemma.]

10. Artillery Effects: Roll an artillery attack separately against EACH unit in the hex (not against loaded units…only the transport is the target). Each target rolls defensive rolls, if eligible, separately as well. [Gives artillery area effects, not point effects, which is one of its main advantages. It also enhances its effectiveness, and makes it a negative to stack forces under artillery fire, instead of improving their protection…a key tactical paradigm.]

11. Artillery/mortar persistence: Artillery and mortar impact markers remain on the map once placed, and are not removed until the marker removal phase. Any unit moving into each hex under an artillery impact area suffers an attack. (Must create artillery and mortar impact markers). [Allows the typical use of FPFs for artillery and mortars for tacticians.]

12. Mortar smoke: Mortars may fire smoke instead of HE. Same rules as artillery smoke, except it only affects one hex, and you place a “smoke 1” marker initially (it only lasts the remainder of the current turn). [Encourages players to use mortars for what they are typically used for.]

13. Artillery support: Most scenarios should have an artillery marker that can be used every turn, at least one battery for NATO forces, and at least one battalion for WPact forces. NATO artillery markers impact only the hex targeted; WPact artillery impacts that hex and all the adjacent hexes as well. [Puts artillery support in its proper place on most any potential battlefield. It is a more persistent combat asset than WaW gives it credit for.]

14. 2S1 Artillery: Soviet 2S1 artillery platoons on the board cannot fire indirect fire. They are solely used for direct fire. They may conduct overwatch fire (their traditional role). They only affect one target hex, not six like other Soviet artillery.

15. Soviet Artillery: The Soviet player will normally have at least one 122mm battalion counter in support. This counter is represented by a chit which covers the target hex and all the hexes around it (per rules above). The chit is placed in the cup when the other formation chits are added, and when drawn, it is kept by the Soviet player to be used by any HQ activated later in the turn. This may mean that the artillery BN may not be called to be used that turn; if not, it is taken away and put back in the cup for the next turn (it is not held by the Soviet player at the end of the chit return phase). When the artillery BN is available for use, the Soviet player calls the artillery per normal rules. In some scenarios, the Soviet player may be able to plot the artillery BN target hex for the first two turns of the game, and when drawn, the artillery automatically targets that hex without using a Soviet HQ, and not requiring any LOS. It still may scatter per normal rules.

16. Battalion/Regimental/Brigade assets: There should be more supporting higher assets for most of the formations in these scenarios. A typical list includes:
a.Battalion/regimental mortars: 4.2” mortar battery for NATO; 120mm for WP.
b.Soviet direct fire artillery: Battery of 2S1s for leading WP elements.
c.Reconnaissance units: Platoon of Bradleys/Luchs for NATO; company of BRDMs/BMPs for WP.
d.Anti-tank units: ITV platoons for NATO; BRDM-AT companies for WP.
e.Engineer units: Engr platoon for NATO; Engr company for WP.

17.Ops Complete markers: No rule change, except that I indicate “ops capable” instead of “ops complete.” I place “Ops capable” markers in the reverse of “ops complete” as used in the current rules. For example, at the start of a new turn, all units on the board are marked “ops capable.” These are removed as units act during their formations phase. When a formation chip is drawn, all its units are marked “ops capable” if they aren’t already. The only difference is that units are marked when their Ops is NOT complete (and are still eligible to perform actions), rather than when their Ops is complete. [I do this because I like to use firing position half-markers along the front of unit counters, with proper facing, to represent units scanning their fields of fire and ready to fire. It’s a much more powerful visual effect than using ‘ops coml’ markers.]